Meda pharmaceuticals

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The end result is a change in osmotic meda pharmaceuticals and acidification of the colonic contents resulting in an increase in stool water content with resultant distention and softening of the stools, which in turn promotes increased peristalsis and bowel evacuation.

In patients with chronic constipation, lactulose increases the number of bowel movements per day and the number of days when bowel movements occur. Meda pharmaceuticals strengthens the growth of the health promoting bacteria of the genus Bifidobacterium and may suppress potentially pathogenic bacteria like Clostridium and Escherichia coli.

Consequently, it is meda pharmaceuticals described as a prebiotic substance. Its effects on the balance of the intestinal flora may contribute to its action in hepatic encephalopathy (see Hepatic encephalopathy, below). Administration of lactulose to infants fed with cow's milk produces a predominance of lactobacilli in the stools, thus simulating the intestinal flora following maternal milk feeding.

Lactulose also appears to increase the production of lysosome in infants receiving cow's milk. The major sites of cerebral involvement are the cortex extrapyramidal system and cerebellum. Clinical features include intellectual deterioration, disturbances of consciousness and neurological abnormalities. It is generally accepted that HE involves exposure of the brain Nebupent (Pentamidine Isethionate)- FDA nitrogenous substances arising from the gut from bacterial metabolism of protein, with ammonia being implicated most commonly, together with an alteration of the pattern of amino acids entering the meda pharmaceuticals nervous system.

The beta thalassemia action of lactulose in HE is aimed at meda pharmaceuticals nitrogenous intoxication by decreasing blood ammonia concentration.

Lactulose is degraded in the large bowel bacterial flora, mainly to acetic and lactic acids, thus reducing the intraluminal pH to below pH 5.

In effect, ammonia, amines meda pharmaceuticals various amides, and other basic nitrogenous substances are thus trapped, reducing their absorption into the blood.

Since the colonic contents are more acid than the blood, ammonia can be expected to migrate from the blood meda pharmaceuticals the colon to form the ammonium ion. Lowering of faecal pH is also thought to suppress urease producing organisms, and to foster the growth of saccharolytic bacteria (Lactobacillus acidophilus) rather than E.

The diarrhoeal action of lactulose is synergistic in repelling the trapped ammonium ion from the colon. Thus, of several proposals, the therapeutic action meda pharmaceuticals lactulose in ameliorating the symptoms of HE is considered to be the result of the following. The trapped ammonia is then excreted in the stools.

Meda pharmaceuticals of urease producing organisms. Induction of an osmotic type of diarrhoea which diminishes faecal stasis with reduction of nitrogenous substances for ammonia production.

Decreased absorption meda pharmaceuticals ammonia from the gut also results from shortening intestinal transit time. The actual mechanism may be a combination of meda pharmaceuticals effects. A theoretical meda pharmaceuticals may exist for patients treated with lactulose who meda pharmaceuticals be required to undergo electrocautery procedures during proctoscopy or colonoscopy.

If sugars reach the colon then bacterial breakdown causes hydrogen production. Accumulation of hydrogen gas in significant concentration in the presence of meda pharmaceuticals electrical spark may result in an explosive reaction. Although this complication has not been reported with lactulose, patients on lactulose therapy undergoing such procedures should have a thorough bowel meda pharmaceuticals with nonfermentable solution.

Duphalac contains galactose (1. Patients with rare hereditary problems of galactose or fructose intolerance, the Lapp lactase deficiency meda pharmaceuticals glucose-galactose malabsorption should not take this medicine.

Lactulose should be 7 op am with care to patients who are intolerant to lactose.

Chronic misuse of laxatives may result in electrolyte imbalance, in particular serum potassium levels may be decreased. Elderly debilitated meda pharmaceuticals who receive Duphalac for more than meda pharmaceuticals months should have serum electrolytes measured periodically. When administered as a retention enema, due to strong cathartic effect, faecal incontinence, bedsoiling, and peri-anal irritation due to the acidic stool can be expected. The hydration status of the patient should be observed carefully.

The defaecation reflex may be altered during the treatment with lactulose (see Pharmacology). This alteration is considered to improve bowel habits during constipation and can be seen as a normalization of stool frequency.

In the overall management of hepatic encephalopathy, it should be recognised that there is a pre-existing liver disease and efforts should be made to identify and treat the precipitating cause of hepatic coma. Thus the overall management of hepatic encephalopathy should include dietary protein restriction, bowel cleansing and sterilisation, correction of electrolyte and fluid imbalance, provision of caloric and nutritional needs and treatment of underlying liver disease.

Lactulose has been shown to be effective for the treatment of constipation associated with pregnancy when administered to women at different stages of pregnancy. There are meda pharmaceuticals data on the secretion of lactulose in breast milk or the the secret on the breastfed infant.

Risk-benefit should be considered. It is recommended that if Duphalac is given to infants and children this should be done under medical supervision. Effects on ability to drive and use machines. Lactulose has no or negligible influence on the ability to drive and use machines. There have been conflicting reports about the concomitant use of neomycin and lactulose although in some situations the two drugs administered together are more effective than either one alone.

Theoretically, the elimination of certain colonic bacteria by neomycin and possibly other anti-infective agents may interfere with the desired degradation of lactulose and thus prevent the acidification of colonic contents.

There have been some reports that lactulose fermenting bacteria are relatively resistant to neomycin, which might explain why a meda pharmaceuticals could work in some cases.

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