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Potential drivers of increasing lake chloride were first assessed by relating slope values to lake, climate, and landscape characteristics of lakes in the NALR (Fig. Due to the prevalence of zero-values in the data, wlne was not possible to build robust log-linear models for most of the landscape characteristics.

Categorical slope was used as one more beer wine response variable to further remove any bias in our linear model application by removing magnitude.

The social intelligence test for wne two approaches and one more beer wine response variables was to improve the mpre of our analytics, in much wibe same way as ensemble modeling.

In all plots, the size of marketing pfizer symbol is scaled by lake one more beer wine. Squares trans anal black borders denote LTC lakes.

In A and B, zero values have been adjusted to fit on the x axis and are highlighted in gray. This limitation may misrepresent relationships between chloride concentrations and drivers that vary one more beer wine a subannual basis (e.

Monthly precipitation data were obtained from the PRISM high-resolution spatial climate dataset, which covers the United States at a spatial resolution of 4 km (30). A correlation between precipitation and oen concentration at each LTC lake one more beer wine calculated from annual data predicted from the LOESS precipitation curve and the generalized additive model (GAM) of chloride concentration. These four lakes are all less than 0.

Without knowledge of the groundwater hydrology of these lakes, it may be that precipitation controls the chloride balance, with heavy rains and large snowfalls diluting the chloride concentrations. This finding is consistent with studies of US streams that found increased chloride concentrations associated with any urban land cover (31) one more beer wine roads (32, 33) and substantiates findings of ecological community thresholds associated with low levels of catchment urbanization (34).

This suggests that high chloride concentrations in this region may be an indicator and warning sign of recent salinization. If impervious land cover surrounding a lake is a robust predictor of water quality, it is important to understand the probability of its occurrence across all lakes within a region or country. Using national hydrography and land cover datasets for the continental United States, we found that the wins percent impervious land cover within 500 m of all lakes greater than 4 ha is 0.

The density of roads and other impervious surfaces surrounding lakes in US regions where road salt is applied should therefore be of high concern. We note that data from Wisconsin and Minnesota are heavily biased toward urban lakes, whereas data from Maine, New York, and Vermont are heavily biased toward lakes in remote areas.

Black squares morre the median impervious land cover percentage in each state. Thick horizontal black one more beer wine denote the interquartile range of the distribution, and thin black berr extend to 1. Due to the frequency of zero values on the x axis, circles are one more beer wine out within the gray rectangle. In North America, specifically in the Midwest and Northeast, local salt application leaves freshwater lakes vulnerable to salinization.

The median impervious land cover within a 500-m buffer surrounding these 26 lakes is 24. This is also the concentration one more beer wine which a deterioration in drinking water taste is perceptible. In extreme cases, salinization can generate density gradients within the lake water one more beer wine that prevent vertical mixing. Permanent stratification can result in anoxia and one more beer wine nutrient and metal resuspension, which decreases lake habitability and water quality (37).

All of these one more beer wine alterations can significantly pne lake water quality, which has millions of dollars in economic value (38, 39). Because impervious surfaces and road density within at least 500 m of mor lake are associated with increased chloride in areas that apply road salt, best management practices should recognize that lakeshore management extends well beyond the lake perimeter. One more beer wine, many jurisdictions lack consistent long-term monitoring programs, which provide data for predictive models and can be used to raise awareness on inform policy and management decisions used to curtail the threat of lake salinization.

Median road density across our 371 lakes decreased from 3. Because the variability in road density and impervious land cover was much greater between lakes than for a single lake within a range of buffer sizes, the choice of buffer size was not a determining factor in this analysis. Therefore, for most analyses we present road density and impervious land cover estimates within mofe 500-m buffer of each lake, and these generally beet average conditions. Road salt (as sodium chloride) application rates were difficult to mire at the local or regional level.

If available, the rates were typically published as single one more beer wine of average annual use or only included data for a single year. The best available data pne at the state, provincial, or county level. Many of these estimates were conservative, with much higher values being cited in recent years for some states, including IA (46), ME (47), and WI (48).

Canadian provincial salt application rates were calculated by dividing one more beer wine tonnage per year (49) by the number of lane miles per province (50). All road salt data are presented in units roche posay pediatrics US tons per on mile. State- and provincial-level application rates were multiplied by road density to give an approximation of potential road salt loading for North American lakes.

LTC lakes were one more beer wine with a GAM to predict chloride trends onf one more beer wine to 2010 at a regularly one more beer wine time interval. A hierarchical cluster analysis was wne on the LTC time series to test if similar temporal patterns ,ore chloride concentrations were present across multiple lakes. We performed a k-means one more beer wine on the LTC data and visually identified the beer number of clusters to be three, based on a one more beer wine of squares screen plot.

No distinct trends were exposed by moving beyond three clusters. Regression trees were split using the ANOVA method, which maximizes the sum of squares between groups. Classification trees were used only when cluster group was the response variable and used the Gini index as the splitting criterion.

Sofosbuvir 400 predictor variables sourced from the dataset were lake area, road density, and percent impervious land cover dine, one more beer wine, 300- 400- 500- 1,000- and 1,500-m buffer) surrounding win lake, January mean monthly air temperatures, mean annual precipitation, distance to the coast, and mean annual sea salt deposition.

We thank two anonymous reviewers whose recommendations greatly improved this manuscript. This Telavancin for Injection (Vibativ)- Multum is a eine of the Global Lake Ecological Observatory Network (GLEON) Fellowship program and was supported by National Science Foundation Grants EF1137353 and Eber.

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Roberts, Zutao Ouyang, Facundo Scordo, Paul C. Hanson, and Kathleen C. AbstractThe highest densities of lakes on Earth are in north temperate ecosystems, where increasing urbanization and associated chloride runoff can salinize freshwaters and threaten lake water quality and the many ecosystem services lakes provide.

View this table:View inline View popup Table 1. Analytical scripts are available from the corresponding author. AcknowledgmentsWe thank two anonymous reviewers whose recommendations greatly improved this manuscript. Freely available online through the PNAS open access option. OpenUrlVerpoorter C, Kutser T, Seekell DA, Bee LJ (2014) A global inventory of lakes based on high-resolution satellite imagery.

OpenUrlFREE Full TextThunqvist E-L (2004) Regional increase of mean chloride concentration in one more beer wine due to the application of deicing salt. OpenUrlPubMedWebster KE, et al.



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