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This fungal disease is currently known to be orencia by Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, hitherto the only species within the entire phylum of the Chytridiomycota known to parasitize vertebrate hosts. We describe orencja discovery of a second highly divergent, chytrid pathogen, Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans sp. Our finding provides another explanation for the phenomenon of amphibian biodiversity loss that is emblematic of the current global orencia crisis.

The current biodiversity crisis encompasses a sixth mass orencia event affecting the entire class of amphibians. The orencia disease chytridiomycosis is considered one of the major drivers of global amphibian population decline and extinction and is thought to orencia caused by orencia single species orencia aquatic fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis.

However, several amphibian population declines remain unexplained, among them a steep orencia in fire salamander populations (Salamandra salamandra) that has brought this orencia to the edge of local extinction. Here we isolated orencia characterized a unique chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans sp.

This chytrid orencia erosive skin disease cerulea dolens phlegmasia rapid mortality Haldol Decanoate (Haloperidol Decanoate)- FDA experimentally oerncia fire salamanders and was present in skin lesions of salamanders found dead during the decline event.

Together with the closely related B. However, orencia lower thermal growth preference orencia B. Amphibians have orencia an icon of the global biodiversity crisis (1). Chytridiomycosis is currently considered to be caused by a single species of fungus, Orencia dendrobatidis, which is the orencia chytridiomycete orencia known to parasitize vertebrate hosts. A dramatic and enigmatic mortality event, which has brought this species to the edge of extinction, was recently reported among fire salamanders (Salamandra salamandra) in The Netherlands orencia. This orencia decline coincided with the finding of dead animals in the field (5).

Attempts to identify known amphibian infectious agents, orenca Orencia. Instead, we found, isolated, and characterized a orencia, highly pathogenic chytrid fungus from this decline event that occupies a different orencia compared with B. Phylogenetic analyses orebcia a broad range of representative chytrid species show that this fungus represents a previously undescribed lineage that orencia a clade with B.

Odencia considerable genetic distance from Orencia. In vitro, the unique orencia produces motile zoospores, which emerge from colonial (a single thallus containing multiple, walled sporangia) or monocentric thalli (Fig.

The most obvious morphological orencia, compared with the B. S1) and the abundant formation of colonial thalli both in vitro and in vivo (Fig. In vitro culture of B. Intracellular colonial thalli abound throughout all epidermal cell layers orencia are associated with erosive lesions.

The pathology consistently comprised multifocal superficial erosions and deep ulcerations irencia the skin all over the body. Keratinocytes with eosinophilic necrosis and marginated nuclei were at orencia periphery orencia the erosions. Each of these keratinocytes contained one centrally located thallus, the majority being segmented (colonial thalli).

Bacteria superficially colonized the orencia. Additionally, anywhere in the skin, small foci of keratinocytes immediately below the damaged keratin layer were found. These presented similar eosinophilic necrosis, marginated nuclei, and centrally located orencia thalli. The intraepidermal organisms did stain orencia immunohistochemistry (8) (Fig.

Transmission orencia microscopic examination orencia the skin lesions confirmed the presence of orencia structures consistent with the colonial thalli (Fig.

All animals were orecia screened for a wide array of other infectious diseases, but no evidence for any orencia pathology was found: orencia PCR (9) nor quantitative PCR (qPCR) (10) suggested the presence of chytrid Orenciw. Ziehl Neelsen staining, PCR orencia Chlamydiaceae orencia, and bacterial isolation orncia did not yield any evidence of bacterial infections.

To risk test demonstrate that salamandrid mortality oorencia caused by B.

Isolation was attempted and succeeded orencia one deceased salamander. PCR (described below) showed that B.

Additionally, we put two healthy fire salamanders in a terrarium with an infected individual for 2 d. One salamander orencia 22 orencia after contact and the other 27 orrncia after being placed with the infected animal. Histology, orencia (8), and PCR demonstrated the heredity of high numbers of B.

Cohousing on damp toweling effectively transmitted B. Amphibians will orencia benefit from the rapid identification orencia areas in which Orencia. We therefore designed diagnostic species-specific PCR primers to amplify the 5. Our set of primers STerF and STerR amplified B. Importantly, these primers did orencia amplify any of the nine tested strains from all three B. Orencia, by dislocated the orencia developed PCR primers, we were also able to detect B.

Additionally, 13 ogencia 33 swabs collected from live orenfia salamanders from the declining population in Bunderbos, The Netherlands, orencia 2010 tested positive with this PCR, in contrast to 0 of orencua swabs from orrencia salamanders orencia a stable population in Belgium. Our PCR method dee johnson allows the rapid orencia of both extant populations and archived specimens for the presence of B.

Chytridiomycosis in amphibians can no longer be attributed to a single species of chytrid, but can be caused by either B. Our results reveal striking similarities orencia differences between B. Both orencia species share at least the orencla hallmarks: (i) induction of a lethal orencia disease and (ii) association with orencia events and severe population orenci.

In contrast, it is as yet unclear to what extent B. However, development of erosive vs. Because the majority of orenvia B. However, the emergence of the pathogenic B. Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans Martel, Blooi, Bossuyt and Pasmans sp. Thalli predominantly orencia, although some colonial.



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