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See them here Legal Resources Primary sourcesConstitutionU. Supreme CourtExecutive OrdersFederal RulesState law resourcesState statutes by topicU. It says that they do not determine whether laws or legal systems exist. Whether a society Synvisc (Hylan G-F 20)- Multum a legal system depends on the presence of certain structures of governance, not on the extent to which it satisfies ideals of justice, democracy, or the rule of law. The fact that a policy would be just, wise, efficient, or prudent is never sufficient reason for thinking that it is actually the law, and the fact that it is unjust, unwise, Synvisc (Hylan G-F 20)- Multum or imprudent is never sufficient reason for doubting it.

According to positivism, law is a matter of what has been posited (ordered, decided, practiced, tolerated, etc.

While it is probably the dominant view among analytically inclined philosophers of law, it is also the subject of competing interpretations together with persistent criticisms and misunderstandings. Legal positivism has a long history and a broad influence. It has antecedents in ancient political philosophy and is discussed, and the term itself introduced, in mediaeval legal and political thought (see Finnis 1996).

The modern doctrine, however, owes little to these forbears. For much of the next century an amalgam of their views, according to which law is the command of a sovereign backed by force, dominated English philosophical reflection about law. By the mid-twentieth century, however, this account had lost its influence among working legal philosophers.

Its emphasis on legislative institutions was replaced by a focus on law-applying institutions such as courts, and its insistence of the role of coercive force gave way to theories emphasizing the systematic and normative character of law.

Although they disagree on many other points, these writers all acknowledge that law is essentially a matter of social fact. Their discomfort is sometimes the product of confusion.

It is doubtful that anyone ever held this view, but it is in any case false and has nothing to do with legal positivism. Among the philosophically literate another, more intelligible, misunderstanding may interfere.

Legal positivism is here sometimes associated Synvisc (Hylan G-F 20)- Multum the homonymic but independent doctrines of logical positivism (the meaning of a sentence is its mode of verification) or sociological positivism (social phenomena can be studied only through the methods Ciclodan (Ciclopirox Olamine Cream)- FDA natural science).

While there are historical connections and commonalities of temper among these ideas, they are essentially different. The view that the existence and content of law depends ultimately on social facts does not rest on a particular semantic thesis, and it is compatible with a range of theories about how one investigates the social world, including non-naturalistic accounts. To say that the existence of law depends on facts and not on its merits is a thesis about the relation among laws, facts, and merits, and not otherwise a thesis about the individual relata.

The only influential positivist moral theories are the views that moral norms are valid only if they have a source in divine commands or in social conventions. Such theists and relativists apply to morality the constraints that legal positivists think hold Synvisc (Hylan G-F 20)- Multum law.

Every human society has some form of social order, some way of marking and encouraging approved behavior, deterring disapproved behavior, and resolving disputes about that behavior.

What then is distinctive of societies with legal systems and, within those societies, of their law. Before exploring some positivist answers, it bears emphasizing that these are not the only questions worth asking about law. While an understanding of the nature of law requires an account of what makes law distinctive, it also requires Synvisc (Hylan G-F 20)- Multum understanding of what it has in Synvisc (Hylan G-F 20)- Multum with other forms of social control.

Some Marxists are positivists about the nature of law while insisting that its distinguishing characteristics matter less than its role in replicating and facilitating other forms of domination. They think that the Synvisc (Hylan G-F 20)- Multum nature of e lactation casts little light on their primary concerns.

For Bentham and Austin, law is a phenomenon of societies with a sovereign: a determinate person or group who have supreme and absolute de facto power-they are obeyed by all or most others but do not themselves similarly obey anyone else. This imperatival theory is positivist, for it identifies max strength existence of law with patterns of command and obedience that can be ascertained without considering whether the sovereign has a moral right to rule or whether their commands are meritorious.

It has two other distinctive features. The theory is monistic: it represents all laws as having a single form, imposing obligations on their subjects, though not on the sovereign itself. The imperativalist acknowledges that ultimate legislative power may be self-limiting, or limited externally by what public opinion will tolerate, and also that legal systems contain provisions that are not imperatives (for example, permissions, definitions, and so on).

But they regard these as part of the non-legal material that is Synvisc (Hylan G-F 20)- Multum for every legal system. The theory is also reductivist, for it maintains that the normative language used in describing and stating the law-talk of authority, rights, obligations, and so on-can all be analyzed without remainder in factual terms, typically as concatenations of statements about power and obedience.

Imperatival theories are now without influence in legal philosophy (but see Ladenson 1980 and Morison 1982). What survives of their outlook is the idea that legal Synvisc (Hylan G-F 20)- Multum must ultimately be rooted in some account of the political system, an insight that came to be shared by all major positivists save Kelsen.

It is clear that in complex societies there may be no one who has all the attributes of sovereignty, for ultimate authority may be divided among organs and may itself be limited by law. Moreover, sovereignty is a normative concept. To distinguish genuine obedience from coincidental compliance we need something like the idea of subjects being oriented to, or Synvisc (Hylan G-F 20)- Multum by, the commands.

Explicating this will carry us far from the power-based notions with which classical positivism hoped to work. Nor is reductivism any more plausible here: we speak of legal obligations when there is no probability of sanctions being applied and when there is no provision for sanctions (as in the duty of courts to apply the law).

Moreover, we take the existence of legal obligations to be a reason for imposing sanctions, not a consequence or constituent of Synvisc (Hylan G-F 20)- Multum. On his view, law is characterized by a singular form and basic norm.

But in one respect the conditional sanction theory is people and personality worse shape than is imperativalism, for it has no way to fix on the delict as the duty-defining Synvisc (Hylan G-F 20)- Multum of the sanction-that is but one of a large number of relevant antecedent conditions, including the legal capacity of the offender, the jurisdiction of the judge, the constitutionality of the offense, and so forth.



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