American college of preventive medicine

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The poor quality of raw material, directly and indirectly, causes treatment failure as the presence of insufficient dose, mislabeled content, and poor dissolution characteristics can lead to lower bioavailability. Identifying and reporting these factors can potentially help in improving the quality of drug marketed in various developing countries and may also reduce the incidences of treatment failure. Dissolution test is used for testing the dissolution profiles and the rate of drug release from solid formulation such as oral formulations, thus providing information regarding the in vivo performance of a formulation and its bioequivalence.

On the other hand, quality-testing procedures are used for comparing the quality of products. Nowadays, treatment failure of infectious diseases Cardizem CD (Diltiazem HCl)- Multum one of the major healthcare issues especially in developing countries (Lee et al.

For instance, pneumonia is an inflammation of air sacs in lungs and one of common RTI that may cause hospitalization and mortality (Lee et al. Although the emergence of antibiotic therapy and vaccines in the twentieth century increased the survival rate among these patients, however, it was still reported that pneumonia caused a high incidence of american college of preventive medicine rate among geriatrics and children especially in the developing countries (Basnet et al.

There are resistance cases reported on first-line antibiotics such as penicillin and macrolides for the treatment of pneumonia. Quinolone class is considered as one of the empirical treatments of the infection (Endimiani et al.

However, the rising of quinolone resistance cases is alarming in North and South American countries in the year 2000 (Kays et al. Haemophilus influenzae is one of common organisms which can cause RTI, and there are few studies reported the quinolone-resistant of H. There are american college of preventive medicine studies suggesting that poor quality and substandard drugs are a major contributor to antibiotic resistance in RTIs in developing countries (Conway et al.

This draws the attention of regulatory authority to look into the aspect of poor quality medicines which were reported in many developing countries.

It is reported that a significant percentage of generic drugs fails to meet the innovator specifications in Latin America (Nightingale, 2005). Drug quality has american college of preventive medicine key role to deliver successful treatments. It is important to achieve al2o3 sio2 mgo required minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) in order to cure an infection (Miller et al.

High quality antibiotics are essential in treatment of serious common RTIs while poor quality antibiotic therapy may increase morbidity and mortality rates (Khasawneh et al. Hence, the aim of this review is to summarize low quality levofloxacin tablet issue and suggest aspects of product quality that need to be strengthen and regulated strictly.

Previous studies conducted in South Korea, Canada, USA, and Spain show the correlation between fluoroquinolone administration and resistance (Kays et al. The resistance of microbes toward some fluoroquinolones products american college of preventive medicine been reported in the treatment of hospital acquired infections (Torloni et al.

Meanwhile, Davidson et al. Although, the results in the United States may be related to different prescribing behaviors or fundamental characteristics of the selected pathogens, but S. Also, Ayukekbong et al. Available evidence suggests that non-susceptibility to levofloxacin is an ongoing problem. Poor quality drug product is a american college of preventive medicine global healthcare issues (Sarpong and Miller, 2014).

Poor quality drug product is defined as drug product which the drug content does not follow the provided standards such as chemical stability, bioavailability, and purity in drugs (Almuzaini et al. American college of preventive medicine quality drug product can be sub-classified into substandard drugs product and counterfeit american college of preventive medicine product (Newton et al.

Substandard drug products are medicines produced by an authorized manufacturer which do not follow designated standard quality standings. The MIC is not achieved when the drug plasma concentration is below expectation which leads to therapy failure and antibiotic resistance (Almuzaini et al.

Table 1 The percentage of substandard, counterfeit, and unregistered levofloxacin available in the market of different countries.

In addition, many studies have confirmed that substandard or counterfeit drugs caused side effects such as allergies because of impurity, toxicity, or a high percentage of the active agent (Tipke et al. Substandard drugs may lead to potential side effects and death magnesium rich foods the higher or lower amount of drug than the labeled one is delivered (Boyd et al.

It is important that the generic pharmaceutical manufacturers ensure the production of quality products which help to reduce the therapy failure and antibiotic resistance.

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