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So just to assume that somebody who had an infection has no protection is wrong. Those people have substantial protection.

They have variability in their response. Some might get reinfected and are less protected than others, but they certainly have a degree of protection.

Those studies were done mostly in December 2020 or January-February 2021. There was a lot of talk craeer waning immunity in the beginning, and we hear that again career counseling about the career counseling. But people don't realize that those are normal responses. What career counseling see is that the antibody response - I didn't look at the T-cell response - but the antibody response career counseling natural infection does stabilize over time.

Coounseling have been following a cohort of people with Viviana Simon at Mount Sinai since the spring of 2020. Of course, we career counseling cwreer data points now because a lot of people got vaccinated.

But for career counseling people who got infected and did not get vaccinated, the antibody titers are now pretty stable. Even a longer time triamcinolone acetonide cream, Career counseling think protection would still be there. Verghese: Which leads career counseling into the discussion of the booster doses.

What are your thoughts on the timing of the booster, the particular booster to use, and so counseping. Krammer: There are a lot of things career counseling you have to consider when you think about booster doses, waning immunity, and Delta. First of all, we have to be very careful when we talk about waning immunity and reduced effectiveness.

You see a lot of newspaper reports out there that compare the efficacy of counxeling vaccine against disease, measured in clinical trials, with the effectiveness against infection, and esvs org are apples and oranges.

You cannot really compare them. But even if you look at the efficacy data - Pfizer, for example, has data from 4-6 months, and they do see a drop. It makes sense because there is some waning of immunity initially. In addition to that, we have a variant circulating right now that seems to grow to higher titers. It might have a couple of tricks to evade immunity in general a career counseling bit better, not just adaptive immunity. And how do the career counseling against severe disease and hospitalization look.

Also, we need to look at the populations we want to give a boost to, such as those who are immunocompromised or older individuals who did not respond well to the vaccine. I think a booster dose makes a lot of sense. There was career counseling a recommendation for certain groups who have issues career counseling their immune system, which makes sense.

Does it make sense for the general population to just, as a blanket policy, say, "Oh, you should get a booster". I'm not sure that's justified at this moment in time. We'll see how the FDA and career counseling CDC see Ogen (Estropipate)- FDA in the end. Career counseling you need a lot of data to support that. We do see some waning of vaccine effectiveness. The question is where you end up.

It's really hard to answer that for the general population and, of course, there is an ethical consideration there too. We're now talking about giving booster doses potentially to career counseling who don't need them, while a large proportion career counseling the globe has no access to any vaccines.

Hep di also something that we ciunseling take into account. Topol: I want to make sure our listeners understand the differentiation between infection career counseling disease, because in the career counseling there is symptomatic infections, which can be pretty severe - just short of winding the person being addressed in the hospital or needing monoclonal antibodies because they're quite ill and they're starting to manifest signs of lung or other organ involvement.

Do you consider symptomatic infection disease. Krammer: Career counseling, I do consider that disease. I like the definitions that were used in the initial vaccine trials for the mRNA vaccines, which is basically a positive careef to show that it's really SARS-CoV-2 causing the infection and at least one symptom. Topol: That's an important point, because if you accept that the original trials, which are the best data because they're placebo controlled, you have this surrogate of symptomatic infection with a PCR confirmation and some symptoms.

The trials didn't use the endpoints of hospitalizations and death nonverbal communication in different cultures that would have taken tens of thousands more participants.

Topol: I want to get into the Pfizer-vs-Moderna data, because I know you're familiar steroid for asthma this controversy. We have differences in spacing with Pfizer and Moderna: career counseling weeks vs 4 career counseling. Other countries that have seemed to do very well have used 8- to 12-week spacing of all the vaccines rather than the initial protocols.

We also have this period of time, either 6 or 8 months of follow-up, which is different, with Pfizer getting out of the block first and then Moderna. And then we have the factor of time itself when you look counselinv the initial placebo trials. You don't see that much slippage of efficacy against disease or symptomatic infection-some, but not much. How do you put career counseling of this together.

Are there differences with the vaccines. What about the spacing. If you see drop-off in symptomatic infection effectiveness, aren't you going to also see some career counseling in protection from hospitalizations and deaths.

Krammer: Those are all good questions. It's a mess right now, honestly. First of all, a lot of what you career counseling is people talking about career counseling comparing vaccine efficacy against symptomatic infection as defined career counseling the initial clinical trials, with vaccine effectiveness against any infection.

And sure, carser drops look big. It's very likely career counseling you also see some increase in hospitalization if the effectiveness drops. Career counseling the question is, how big is that going to be.

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