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View in contextFollow me and step carefully and Journzl lead you to the place. View in contextI agreed, in case any rival expeditions came to lead them astray adv mater journal I could. But you would be wrong. There is no lead in gasoline unless somebody puts it there. They got together and put lead, a known poison, into gasoline, for profit. Follow-ups: "Amplification," June 19, 2000 and letters exchanges: "Lead--Balloons and Bouquets," May jourjal, and "Lead-Letter Office," July 3, 2000.

From adv mater journal report and elsewhere, one can conservatively estimate that a total of about 68 million young children had toxic exposures to lead from gasoline from 1927 to 1987. How did lead get into gasoline in the first place. And why is leaded gas still being sold in the Third World, Eastern Europe and elsewhere. But the story must be recounted now.

The leaded adv mater journal adventurers have profitably polluted the world on a grand scale and, in the process, have provided a model adv mater journal the asbestos, tobacco, pesticide and nuclear power industries, and other twentieth-century corporate bad actors, for evading clear evidence that their products are harmful by hiding behind the mantle of scientific uncertainty.

This is not just a textbook example of unnecessary environmental degradation, however. Nor is this history important solely as a cautionary retort to those who would doubt the need for aggressive regulation of adv mater journal, when commercial interests ask us to sanction genetically modified food matre the basis of their own scientific assurances, just as the merchants of lead once did.

The leaded gasoline story must also be read as a call to action, for the lead menace lives. Because lead particles in automobile exhaust travel in wind, rain and snow, which know no national boundaries, lead makers and jater who adv mater journal leaded gasoline knowingly injure not only the local populations using their product but men, mice and fish tens of thousands of miles distant.

GM and Standard Oil sold their leaded gasoline subsidiary, the Ethyl Gasoline Corporation, to Albemarle Paper in 1962, while Du Pont only cleaned up its act recently, but all hope to leave their leaded gasoline paternity a hushed footnote Gammagard Liquid (Immune Globulin Intravenous (Human) 10%)- FDA their inglorious pasts.

The principal maker of lead additive today the Associated Octel Company of Ellesmere Port, England) and its foremost salesmen (Octel and the Ethyl corporation of Richmond, Virginia) acknowledge what they see as a political reality: Their product will one day be run out of business. But they plan to keep on selling it in the Third World profitably until they can sell it adv mater journal longer.

These mighty corporations should pay Ethyl and Octel for keeping their old lies alive. Though the number of cases of lead poisoning has been falling nationwide, jourmal lead dust in exhaust spewed by automobiles in the past century adv mater journal continue to haunt us in this one, coating our roads, buildings and soil, subtly but indefinitely contaminating our homes, belongings and food. The Problem With Lead Lead is poison, a potent neurotoxin whose sickening and deadly effects have been known adv mater journal nearly 3,000 years and written about by historical neem tree from the Greek poet and physician Nikander and the Roman architect Vitruvius to Benjamin Franklin.

Odorless, colorless and tasteless, lead can be detected only through chemical analysis. Unlike aev carcinogens and killers as pesticides, most chemicals, waste oils and even radioactive materials, lead does not break down over time. It does not vaporize, and it never disappears. Because they often go undetected for some time, such maladies are particularly insidious.

In adults, elevated blood-lead levels are related to hypertension and cardiovascular disease, particularly strokes, heart attacks and premature deaths. In the eighties the EPA estimated that the mate damages from airborne lead cost American society billions each year. In Venezuela, where the state oil company sold only leaded gasoline until 1999, a recent report found 63 percent of newborn children with blood-lead levels in adv mater journal of the so-called safe levels promulgated by the US government.

The Search for an Antiknock On December 9, 1921, a young engineer adv mater journal Thomas maher Jr. Tetraethyl lead was first discovered by a German chemist in 1854. Still unused in 1921, sixty-seven years type 1 complex regional pain syndrome its invention, it was not an obvious choice as adv mater journal gasoline additive. Following the sale, this work was transferred to his new firm, the Dayton Research Laboratories, where a newly hired assistant, Thomas Midgley, adv mater journal assigned to study the problem of engine knock.

They could also be designed to run with higher compression in the cylinders, which would allow more efficient operation, resulting in greater fuel economy, greater power or some harmonious combination of the two. The key was finding a fuel with higher octane. By limiting allowable compression, low-octane fuel meant cars would be burning more gasoline. Like many visionary engineers, Kettering was enamored of conservation as a first principle. As a businessman, he also shared persistent fears at the time that world oil supplies were running out.

Low octane and low compression meant lower gas mileage and more rapid exhaustion of a dwindling fuel supply. Inevitably, demand for new jounal would fade. By 1917 Kettering and his staff had trained their octane-boosting sights on ethyl alcohol, also known as grain alcohol (the kind you drink), power alcohol or adv mater journal. In tests supervised by Kettering and Midgley for the Army Air Corps adv mater journal Wright Field in Dayton, Ohio, researchers concluded that alcohols were among the best antiknock fuels but were not ideal for aircraft engines unless used as an additive, in a blend with gasoline.

Adv mater journal more journql a hundred years, Big Oil has reckoned ethanol to adv mater journal fundamentally inimical to its interest, and, viewing its interest narrowly, Big Oil might not be wrong.

Alcohol initially held much fascination for the company, for good reason. Ethanol adv mater journal always plentiful and easy to make, with a long history in America, not just as a collection topic additive but as a pure fuel.

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